Updated on March 15, 2024


Created on November 30, 2022

Kalobeyei Settlement Planning

Upcoming Update

The Kalobeyei Settlement is a development that provides an integrated framework<span style="font-we

Developed By Unknown
Content Partners


Product Description

The Kalobeyei Settlement development plan provides a settlement shelter to support refugees from the Kakuma refugee camp, it was initiated by the Government of Kenya, UNHCR, the county government of Turkana and the World Bank and designed by Shigeru Ban Architects. The development was initiated as a plan to integrate the refugees within the local surrounding communities and provide more permanent shelter to the conflict driven refugees from Southern Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. The size of the shelter for each family is dependent on the family size. The finances are allocated to each family, which then selects the housing design that suits their needs.  Three different prototypes are available for the households to choose from depending on their origin and preferences. The settlement was developed in four phases with the infrastructural phase targeting the resettlement of up to 60,000 refugees. 

Target Users (Target Impact Group)

Distributors / Implementing Organizations

Goverment of Kenya, UNHCR, and Shigeru Ban Architects 

Manufacturing/Building Method

The project is constructed through a community participatory approach where members from different communities are included to represent the different groups of refugees from the design to the construction. The selected members give their input into the housing design that meets their most pressing needs while still fulfilling the goal of providing a high quality of life aspect for the occupants or owners. Once the base plan is developed, an iterative process to refine the design with continuous efforts from experts and community members is used to produce the most suitable shelter design for construction. 

Intellectural Property Type

Select Type

User Provision Model

The plan is developed together with the users (occupants) and implemented by the UNHCR, World bank and the government of Kenya, county government of Turkana. The occupants are then given cash to obtain materials and labor for constructing the actual shelter. 

Distributions to Date Status

As at 2019, one of the proposed villages had been constructed with the remaining three still undergoing construction. 82 families had been resettled for the pilot phase of the shelter construction project.

Unique Design (Yes/No)


Intended number of occupants (#)


Duration of construction (days)


Footprint area (m²)


Number of storeys


Material composition

Constructed from timber, bricks or compressed earth blocks

Flammable flash point temperature (ºC)


Thermal insulating capacity (m²*K/W)


Maximum wind speed (km/h)


Structural Occupancy Category


Seismic Design Category


Suitable Climates


Design Specifications

The shelters are constructed from timber, bricks and compressed earth blocks. The size of the shelter for each family is dependent on the family size.

  • Type A is made with paper tubes: this uses minimal technology from paper tubes combined with the locally available knowledge for ease of construction
  • Type B with timber and mud bricks: this design uses prefabricated, earthquake resistant timber for the walls to allow easy construction. The frame is then finished with brick infills 
  • Type C with interlocking soil bricks: this is made of compressed earth bricks for the frame and walls. 

Product Schematics

Technical Support

The construction requires minimal effort to construct the shelter, with less sophisticated tools and equipment to construct. The designs are based on construction techniques that are part of the local methods and knowhow, which makes it easier to implement. The repairs can be easily done with minimal tools. The pre-assembled components facilitate easier installation and repair.

Replacement Components




Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters

The permanent housing prototypes can withstand harsh environmental conditions such as earthquakes, tsunami while also protecting the inhabitants from the poor housing conditions previously experienced in tents. 

Vetted Performance Status

The prototype for the housing Models A, B and C have been tested in Kobe City, in Nepal and in Sri Lanka respectively.


The construction of the housing uses simple techniques and tools hence only minor safety concerns from the use of tools and methods such may be anticipated..

Complementary Technical Systems


Academic Research and References

Betts A., Omata N., Rodgers C., Sterck O., Stierna M., 2019, The Kalobeyei Model: Towards Self-Reliance for Refugees (Oxford: RSC).

UN HABITAT, 2017-2019, Community driven public space rehabilitation Turkana, Kenya. Support to Kalobeyei New Settlement Project as Part of Kalobeyei Integrated Socio-Economic Development Program (KISEDP)

Ban, Shigeru., Pollock, Naomi., Weizman, Eyal., Kimmelman, Michael., Bruderlein, Claude. Shigeru Ban: Humanitarian Architecture. United States: Aspen Art Museum, 2014.

Compliance with regulations


Other Information


Leave a Reply

Explore similar solutions


February 21, 2024

Handbook for Gender-Inclusive Urban Planning and Design

Read Solution

Implemented by

World Bank SKAT

All Solutions

Contribute to E4C's Library of Breakthrough Sustainable Development Technology Solutions

Suggest A Solution

Get more information about Solutions Library and its features.

Learn More

Have thoughts on how we can improve?

Give Us Feedback

Join a global community of changemakers.

Become A Member