India Mark II is a conventional lever action open source handpump defined by Indian Standards and Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) specifications. It is designed for heavy-duty use, serving communities of 300 persons.
Germany, India, Italy, Mali, Nigeria, Togo, Uganda
SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
Market Suggested Retail Price
Target Users (Target Impact Group)
Distributors / Implementing Organizations
Locally manufactured and distributed by various organizations using the open source design. UNICEF Eritrea in partnership with SKAT (development consultancy) and Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) has been implementing the product for several years.
Can be locally manufactured individually
Intellectural Property Type
User Provision Model
Users can purchase the product directly from local manufacturers and distributors selling the pumps.
Distributions to Date Status
Over 5 million
Power requirement (W)
Average flow rate (L/min at specific head)
30 L/min at 10 m, 21.7 L/min at 15 m, 16.7 L/min at 20 m, 15.0 L/min at 25 m, 13.3 L/min at 30 m
Maximum head (m)
Conventional lever action handpump suitable for use with a drilled borehole. Above ground level Components: Pump head, pump stand and a handle of galvanized steel. Below ground level components: Brass lined cast iron cylinder with a footvalve and a plunger of brass with double nitrile rubber cup seal. Rising main is a Ø32 mm GI pipe and the pump rods are of galvanized steel with threaded connectors. Not corrosion resistant: should not be used in water with pH < 6.5
General mechanics can successfully maintain the pump. It is not a Village Level Operation & Maintenance (VLOM) pump, so it does require some expertise and knowledge of pumps and mechanics to maintain.
All above ground components can be locally manufactured, and can be replaced by a trained mechanic with special tools. Replacement of underground components may not be possible.
The individual parts of the handpump have lifespans as follows:Chain - 4 years, Valve - 4 years, Piston seals - 5 years, Handle bearings - 5 years, Pump rod - 10 years, Riser pipes - 12 years.The India Mark II Pump was designed to be operational for at least 1 year without maintenance. Monthly and tri-monthly checks combined with yearly replacements can extend the life of the pump.
Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters
The India Mark II Pump is a public domain pump defined by RWSN specifications noted in the vetted performance section. No performance targets are available from UNICEF and other organizations involved in the development of the India Mark II.
Vetted Performance Status
Rural Water Supply Network performance measurements follow: • Depths for use: 50 – 80 m • Cylinder diameter (mm): 63.5 • Maximum Stroke (mm): 125 • Approx. discharge at about 75 watt input m3/h: • At 10 m head 1.8 • At 15 m head 1.3 • At 20 m head 1.0 • At 25 m head 0.9 • At 30 m head 0.8 • Pumping lift (m): 10 – 50 • Population served (nos.): 300 • Households (nos.): 30 • Water consumption: 15 – 20 L per capita
No known safety hazards are related to this product
Complementary Technical Systems
Adding a concrete slab around the area of the borehole will decrease contaminated water seepage into the soil.
Academic Research and References
Implementation • Handpump Technology Rural-water-supply.net. Available at: https://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/implementation/public-domain-handpumps/india-mark-ii
Rural-water-supply.net. Available at: http://www.rural-water-supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/1-328-34-1384355371.pdf
Engineeringforchange.org. Available at: https://www.engineeringforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/mark2.pdf
Contract, Supply chain analysis of handpumps and spare parts in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rural-water-supply.net. Available at: http://rural-water-supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/1-636-2-1415975349.pdf
Goal 6 Sdgs.un.org. Available at: https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal6
Engineeringforchange.org. Available at: https://www.engineeringforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/1-327-2-1341317788.pdf
How three handpumps revolutionized rural water supplies Engineeringforchange.org. Available at: https://www.engineeringforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/rwsn_how_three_handpumps_revolutionised_rural_water_supplies_2013.pdf
Water hand pumps like the India Mark II Clean-water-for-laymen.com. Available at: http://www.clean-water-for-laymen.com/water-hand-pumps.html
INDIA MARK II HAND PUMP, Ircwash.org. Available at: https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/232.2-05IN-18817.pdf
Compliance with regulations
Indian Bureau of Standards: IS 8035:1999 Handpump - Shallow Well IS 12732: Deepwell Handpump - Nomenclature Identification and Packaging of Components IS 15500 : Part 1 to 8: 2004 - Deepwell handpumps components and special tools IS 9301
Extensive field testing has been consistently conducted since 1976 by the designing and implementing organizations.
Experts indicate the need for solving the corrosion problem for the India Mark II and India Mark III handpumps. It has been observed that GI pipe cannot be used when the pH is less than 6.5, but they are still installed because the switch to stainless steel or plastic is a challenge due to manufacture and supply chain problems.