Updated on December 26, 2023


Created on August 27, 2015

India Mark II Handpump


India Mark II is a conventional lever action handpump.

Developed By
  1. Mechanical Engineering Research & Development Organization (MERADO)
Tested By
Content Partners


Product Description

India Mark II is a conventional lever action open source handpump defined by Indian Standards and Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) specifications. It is designed for heavy-duty use, serving communities of 300 persons.

Target SDGs

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

SDG 1: No Poverty

Market Suggested Retail Price


Target Users (Target Impact Group)


Distributors / Implementing Organizations

Locally manufactured and distributed by various organizations using the open source design. UNICEF Eritrea in partnership with SKAT (development consultancy) and Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) has been implementing the product for several years.

Manufacturing/Building Method

Can be locally manufactured individually

Intellectural Property Type


User Provision Model

Users can purchase the product directly from local manufacturers and distributors selling the pumps.

Distributions to Date Status

Over 5 million

Pump type

Human-powered pump

Power requirement (W)


Average flow rate (L/min at specific head)

30 L/min at 10 m, 21.7 L/min at 15 m, 16.7 L/min at 20 m, 15.0 L/min at 25 m, 13.3 L/min at 30 m

Maximum head (m)

50 m

Diameter (cm)

6.35 cm

Design Specifications

Conventional lever action handpump suitable for use with a drilled borehole. Above ground level Components: Pump head, pump stand and a handle of galvanized steel. Below ground level components: Brass lined cast iron cylinder with a footvalve and a plunger of brass with double nitrile rubber cup seal. Rising main is a Ø32 mm GI pipe and the pump rods are of galvanized steel with threaded connectors. Not corrosion resistant: should not be used in water with pH < 6.5

Product Schematics

Technical Support

General mechanics can successfully maintain the pump. It is not a Village Level Operation & Maintenance (VLOM) pump, so it does require some expertise and knowledge of pumps and mechanics to maintain.

Replacement Components

All above ground components can be locally manufactured, and can be replaced by a trained mechanic with special tools. Replacement of underground components may not be possible.


The individual parts of the handpump have lifespans as follows:Chain - 4 years, Valve - 4 years, Piston seals - 5 years, Handle bearings - 5 years, Pump rod - 10 years, Riser pipes - 12 years.The India Mark II Pump was designed to be operational for at least 1 year without maintenance. Monthly and tri-monthly checks combined with yearly replacements can extend the life of the pump.

Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters

The India Mark II Pump is a public domain pump defined by RWSN specifications noted in the vetted performance section. No performance targets are available from UNICEF and other organizations involved in the development of the India Mark II.

Vetted Performance Status

Rural Water Supply Network performance measurements follow: • Depths for use: 50 – 80 m • Cylinder diameter (mm): 63.5 • Maximum Stroke (mm): 125 • Approx. discharge at about 75 watt input m3/h: • At 10 m head 1.8 • At 15 m head 1.3 • At 20 m head 1.0 • At 25 m head 0.9 • At 30 m head 0.8 • Pumping lift (m): 10 – 50 • Population served (nos.): 300 • Households (nos.): 30 • Water consumption: 15 – 20 L per capita


No known safety hazards are related to this product

Complementary Technical Systems

Adding a concrete slab around the area of the borehole will decrease contaminated water seepage into the soil.

Academic Research and References

Implementation • Handpump Technology Rural-water-supply.net. Available at: https://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/implementation/public-domain-handpumps/india-mark-ii

Rural-water-supply.net. Available at: http://www.rural-water-supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/1-328-34-1384355371.pdf

Engineeringforchange.org. Available at: https://www.engineeringforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/mark2.pdf

Contract, Supply chain analysis of handpumps and spare parts in Eastern Democratic Republic of CongoRural-water-supply.net. Available at: http://rural-water-supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/1-636-2-1415975349.pdf

Goal 6 Sdgs.un.org. Available at: https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal6

Engineeringforchange.org. Available at: https://www.engineeringforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/1-327-2-1341317788.pdf

How three handpumps revolutionized rural water supplies Engineeringforchange.org. Available at: https://www.engineeringforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/rwsn_how_three_handpumps_revolutionised_rural_water_supplies_2013.pdf

Water hand pumps like the India Mark II Clean-water-for-laymen.com. Available at: http://www.clean-water-for-laymen.com/water-hand-pumps.html

INDIA MARK II HAND PUMP, Ircwash.org. Available at: https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/232.2-05IN-18817.pdf

Compliance with regulations

Indian Bureau of Standards: IS 8035:1999 Handpump - Shallow Well IS 12732: Deepwell Handpump - Nomenclature Identification and Packaging of Components IS 15500 : Part 1 to 8: 2004 - Deepwell handpumps components and special tools IS 9301

Evaluation methods

Extensive field testing has been consistently conducted since 1976 by the designing and implementing organizations.

Other Information

Experts indicate the need for solving the corrosion problem for the India Mark II and India Mark III handpumps. It has been observed that GI pipe cannot be used when the pH is less than 6.5, but they are still installed because the switch to stainless steel or plastic is a challenge due to manufacture and supply chain problems.

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