India Mark II Handpump
UNICEF, Gov't of India, MERADO, and Richardson & Cruddas
A conventional lever action open source handpump defined by Indian Standards and RWSN specifications. It is designed for heavy-duty use, serving communities of 300 persons.
India, Mali, Togo, Nigeria, Uganda, Germany, Italy, various other countries in Asia and Africa
Locally manufactured and distributed by various organizations using the open source design. UNICEF Eritrea in partnership with SKAT – RWSN has been implementing the product for several years.
$850 – $1600 USD
Rural individuals and households in need of a reliable source of water.
Can be locally manufactured individually. All “above ground components” have a potential for local manufacturing, all the other parts need a high degree of quality control to ensure a reliable operation.
Various local manufacturers and distributors sell the pumps directly to consumers. Product specifications and instructions can be found online here if personal manufacturing is desired.
Over 5 million
Conventional lever action handpump suitable for use with a drilled borehole.
Above ground level Components: • Pump head, pump stand and a handle of galvanized steel.
Below ground level components: • Brass lined cast iron cylinder with a footvalve and a plunger of brass • Plunger: double nitrile rubber cup seal • Rising main is a Ø32 mm GI pipe and the pump rods are of galvanized steel with threaded connectors.
Materials: • Pump head: galvanized steel • Handle: galvanized steel • Pump stand: galvanized steel • Pump rods: galvanized steel • Rising main: galvanized GI pipe • Pump cylinder: cast iron / brass • Plunger/footvalve: brass
Not corrosion resistant: should not be used in water with pH < 6.5
General mechanics can successfully maintain the pump. It is NOT a Village Level Operation & Maintenance (VLOM) pump, so it does require some expertise and knowledge of pumps and mechanics to maintain.
All above ground components can be locally manufactured, and can be easily replaced by a trained mechanic with special tools. Replacement of underground components may not be possible.
The individual parts of the handpump have lifespans as follows:
Chain – 4 years, Valve – 4 years, Piston seals – 5 years, Handle bearings – 5 years, Pump rod – 10 years, Riser pipes – 12 years.
The India Mark II Pump was designed to be operational for at least 1 year without maintenance. Monthly and tri-monthly checks combined with yearly replacements significantly extend the life of the pump.
The India Mark II Pump is a public domain pump defined by RWSN specifications noted in the vetted performance section. No performance targets available from UNICEF and other organizations involved in the development of the India Mark II.
Rural Water Supply Network performance measurements follow:
• Depths for use: 50 – 80 m
• Cylinder diameter (mm): 63.5
• Maximum Stroke (mm): 125
• Approx. discharge at about 75 watt input m3/h:
• At 10 m head 1.8 • At 15 m head 1.3 • At 20 m head 1.0 • At 25 m head 0.9 • At 30 m head 0.8
• Pumping lift (m): 10 – 50
• Population served (nos.): 300
• Households (nos.): 30
• Water consumption: 15 – 20 L per capita
UNICEF conducted most field testing and product refinement since the product’s inception in 1976. Since the product is open source, numerous other organizations have performed individual testing and refinement as well.
No known hazards.
Adding a concrete slab around the area of the borehole will decrease contaminated water seepage into the soil.
Chauhan, V. S., Nickson, R. T., Chauhan, D., Iyengar, L., Sankararamakrishnan, N, Ground water geochemistry of Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh, India and mechanism of arsenic release. Chemosphere. 2009 Mar;75(1):83-91.
Agarwal, A., Kimondo, J., Morena, G., Tinker, J. Water sanitation, health — for all? Prospects for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade: 1981-90 [Internet]. London, England: International Institute for Environment and Development; 1981 [cited 2015 Jul 30].
Dhakyanaika, K., Kumara, P., Effects of pollution in River Krishni on hand pump water quality. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review. 2010 Jan 29;3(1):14-22.
Snakararamakrishnan, N., Sharma, A.K., Iyengar, L. Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges alluvial plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India [Internet]. Kanpur, India: Indian Institute of Technology; 2007 Dec 13 [cited 2015 Jul 30].
Gray, K., Working towards village-based handpump maintenance – UNICEF’s approach to India. Waterlines. 2012 Dec 4;2(3):26-?.
• IS 8035:1999 Handpump – Shallow Well • IS 12732: Deepwell Handpump – Nomenclature Identification and Packaging of Components • IS 15500 : Part 1 to 8: 2004 – Deepwell handpumps components and special tools • IS 9301
In 1980, the first Indian Standards Institution (ISI, later named Indian Bureau of Standards, BSI) published the specification for the India Mark II. Even though very rigid, the specification allowed continued refinement by UNICEF, government and manufacturers of the technology through Research and Development and field-testing to improve reliability, durability and ease of maintenance. The national standards were reviewed and modified in 1982, 1984 and 1990.
The India Mark II development focused on the following key aspects:
• Development of a sturdy and reliable community handpump that could work without failure for a year; • Large-scale local production in simply-equipped workshops at low cost (less than USD 200); • Use of materials and components available in the country; • Reducing pumping effort to minimize the burden on women; • Demonstrating that a better-designed handpump, standardization and quality control could facilitate a more effective maintenance system; • Demonstrating that a more reliable supply of potable water could reduce the incidence of water-borne and water-related diseases.
Extensive field testing has been consistently conducted since 1976 by the designing and implementing organizations.
Experts indicate the need for solving the corrosion problem for the India Mark II and India Mark III handpumps. It has been observed that GI pipe cannot be used when the pH is less than 6.5, but they are still installed because the switch to stainless steel or plastic is a challenge due to manufacture and supply chain problems.
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