India Mark II Handpump
India Mark II is a conventional lever action handpump.
India Mark II is a conventional lever action open source handpump defined by Indian Standards and Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) specifications. It is designed for heavy-duty use, serving communities of 300 persons.
India, Mali, Togo, Nigeria, Uganda, Germany, Italy, various other countries in Asia and Africa
Locally manufactured and distributed by various organizations using the open source design. UNICEF Eritrea in partnership with SKAT (development consultancy) and Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) has been implementing the product for several years.
850 – 1600 USD
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Rural individuals and households in need of a reliable source of water
Users can purchase the product directly from local manufacturers and distributors selling the pumps.
Description of the pump type
Power required, measured in watts
Manufacturer-specified discharge rate, measured at a specific head
Maximum depth of water the pump can pull
Piston nominal diameter, measured in centimeters
Conventional lever action handpump suitable for use with a drilled borehole.
Above ground level Components: Pump head, pump stand and a handle of galvanized steel.
Below ground level components: Brass lined cast iron cylinder with a footvalve and a plunger of brass with double nitrile rubber cup seal. Rising main is a Ø32 mm GI pipe and the pump rods are of galvanized steel with threaded connectors.
Not corrosion resistant: should not be used in water with pH < 6.5
General mechanics can successfully maintain the pump. It is not a Village Level Operation & Maintenance (VLOM) pump, so it does require some expertise and knowledge of pumps and mechanics to maintain.
All above ground components can be locally manufactured, and can be replaced by a trained mechanic with special tools. Replacement of underground components may not be possible.
The individual parts of the handpump have lifespans as follows:
Chain – 4 years, Valve – 4 years, Piston seals – 5 years, Handle bearings – 5 years, Pump rod – 10 years, Riser pipes – 12 years.
The India Mark II Pump was designed to be operational for at least 1 year without maintenance. Monthly and tri-monthly checks combined with yearly replacements can extend the life of the pump.
The India Mark II Pump is a public domain pump defined by RWSN specifications noted in the vetted performance section. No performance targets are available from UNICEF and other organizations involved in the development of the India Mark II.
Rural Water Supply Network performance measurements follow:
• Depths for use: 50 – 80 m
• Cylinder diameter (mm): 63.5
• Maximum Stroke (mm): 125
• Approx. discharge at about 75 watt input m3/h:
• At 10 m head 1.8 • At 15 m head 1.3 • At 20 m head 1.0 • At 25 m head 0.9 • At 30 m head 0.8
• Pumping lift (m): 10 – 50
• Population served (nos.): 300
• Households (nos.): 30
• Water consumption: 15 – 20 L per capita
UNICEF conducted most field testing and product refinement since the product’s inception in 1976. Since the product is open source, numerous other organizations have performed individual testing and refinement as well.
No known safety hazards are related to this product
Adding a concrete slab around the area of the borehole will decrease contaminated water seepage into the soil.
Chauhan, V. S., Nickson, R. T., Chauhan, D., Iyengar, L., Sankararamakrishnan, N, 2009, Groundwater geochemistry of Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh, India and mechanism of arsenic release, Chemosphere, 75(1), pp. 83-91.
Agarwal, A., Kimondo, J., Morena, G., Tinker, J., 1981, Water sanitation, health — for all? Prospects for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade: 1981-90, International Institute for Environment and Development.
Dhakyanaika, K., Kumara, P., 2010, Effects of pollution in River Krishni on hand pump water quality, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, 3(1), pp. 14-22.
Snakararamakrishnan, N., Sharma, A.K., Iyengar, L., 2007, Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in groundwater along the Ganges alluvial plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India, Indian Institute of Technology.
Gray, K., 2012, Working towards village-based handpump maintenance – UNICEF’s approach to India, Waterlines, 2(3), pp. 26-32.
- IS 8035:1999 Handpump – Shallow Well
- IS 12732: Deepwell Handpump – Nomenclature Identification and Packaging of Components
- IS 15500 : Part 1 to 8: 2004 – Deepwell handpumps components and special tools
- IS 9301
Extensive field testing has been consistently conducted since 1976 by the designing and implementing organizations.
Experts indicate the need for solving the corrosion problem for the India Mark II and India Mark III handpumps. It has been observed that GI pipe cannot be used when the pH is less than 6.5, but they are still installed because the switch to stainless steel or plastic is a challenge due to manufacture and supply chain problems.
In context photographs (0)
You can use the form below to contribute a photo of this product.
In context files & documents (0)
Feedback from users, customers & distributors
Please let us know your experience in using this product through comments below.