T4T Mak IV Incinerator
Nicholas Kasekende and Dr. Moses Kizza Musaazi
The T4T Mak IV Incinerator is a solid waste incinerator manufactured and distributed in Kampala, Uganda.
The T4T Mak IV Incinerator is a solid waste incinerator that turns waste into ash while avoiding the spreading of toxic gases. It is specially targeted at health facilities for safe incineration of hospital waste but can also be used in schools, universities and other complexes with a substantial waste generation.
The Incinerator is made and sold by Technology for Tomorrow Ltd (T4T), a company which has its roots in research and development at Makerere University. Examples of clients the incinerator has been sold to are local governments, EGPAF, Mercy Corps, Baylor Uganda, ICRC and Save the children. Interview with Manufacturer in 2018
Other medical incinerators including the De Montfort Medical Waste Incinerator and Zebra Incinerator.
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Entities which produce a substantial amount of waste that need to incinerate waste including hospitals, schools and villages.
The product is factory built by T4T Ltd in Kampala.Interview with Manufacturer in 2018
Users can obtain the product directly from the T4T website.
As of 2018, more than 50 incinerators have been installed in Uganda. Interview with Manufacturer in 2018
Installations have been made at Kayunga Hospital as well as Health Centres in Masaka, Kitgum, Gulu and Pader districts in Uganda. Incinerators were in use at the Makerere University, however, the incinerators have been removed due to new regulations in Kampala.
6 incinerators have been installed in Soroti and a new installation was planned in Mokono for September 2017. Interview with Manufacturer
Mass of waste the incinerator can process in each cycle
Type of energy used for operation
The required input energy
The run-time for cycle process
The T4T Mak IV Incinerator is primarily built from stainless steel. The top of the incinerator is covered with sand or refractory powder to stop air leakage and prevent heat loss. The incinerator has 3 chambers. The first chamber is the largest chamber where the solid waste is loaded in batches. Gases produced from the burning are retained in the smaller second and third chamber until the gases are released as colourless smoke.
The incinerator takes 25 to 60 minutes to warm up and can destroy 15 kg/hr. The medium temperature in the 3 chambers is 850°C but can reach up to 1050°C. The combustion efficiency of the incinerator is at least 98%.
Technical support can be done by a trained general technician or through T4T. T4T installs the system for extra cost and training on how to use and maintain the product is can also be bought from T4T.
Replacement components can be ordered from T4T. Interview with Manufacturer in 2018
The T4T Mak IV Incinerator has a lifetime of 5 years when used about 4 hours per day.
Designer specified performance targets include reducing the volume of waste by 95%.
Testing performed by the manufacturer determined that the incinerator can burn up to 5 kg in about 25 minutes.
IT Power India and the University of Mississippi conducted smoke analysis tests. Interview with Manufacturer in 2018
Potential hazards related to the operation of this product include accidental burning as the temperature can reach up to 1050°C.
The burning of wastes can be used to heat water into super-heated steam, which can be used to either sterilize medical equipment or generate electricity by turning of a turbine.
The Ugandan Ministry of Health recommends the use of the product for medical waste management.
The product complies with regulations in Uganda but cannot be used for general waste in Kampala. This is due to a local law which makes it illegal to use incinerators for all wastes apart from medical waste. As a result, the incinerators that were used in the capital city are no longer in use. However, this law does not apply to all of Uganda.Interview with Manufacturer in 2018
The product cites temperature reached, robustness and time to burn waste as evaluation criteria.
T4T developed several incinerator models with different sizes and target users. The price and performance vary according to the model. For example, the product price ranges from 2,735 USD to 16,800 USD and lifetime spans from 4 to 8 years.
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