Updated on January 22, 2024


Created on August 27, 2015

Blue Box Toilet and Sanivation Container-Based Sanitation (CBS) Waste Collection Service

Upcoming Update

The Blue Box Toilet is a urine diverting, dry toilet and Sanivation's Container-Based Sanitation Waste Collection Service is a subscription-based waste management service.

Developed By
  1. Sanivation
Tested By
  • Sanivation
Content Partners


Product Description

The Sanivation Blue Box toilet is a urine diverting, dry toilet that can be manufactured locally at small scale. It is designed to appeal to users’ sense of style, cleanliness and modernity.

Dense urban areas lacking sewer service, especially communities and refugee camps in East Africa. Currently, Sanivation has operations in Naivasha subcounty, Nakuru County, Kenya and have also conducted a pilot in Kakuma refugee camp.Interview with representative

The Sanivation Container-Based Sanitation (CBS) Waste Collection Service is a subscription model sanitation solution that relies on compact, portable, urine-diverting toilet built around sealable, removable containers – the Blue Box. Sanivation has combined waste pick-up services with the transformation of waste to fuel briquette.

Target SDGs

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

Market Suggested Retail Price


Target Users (Target Impact Group)


Distributors / Implementing Organizations

Sanivation distributes the Blue Box toilets as part of their Container-Based Sanitation (CBS) Waste Collection Service.

Competitive Landscape

Manufacturing/Building Method

Locally manufactured contracting a local carpenter.Interview with representative

Intellectural Property Type

Trade Secret

User Provision Model

The Blue Box can be purchased as part of the Sanivation Waste Management subscription service from Sanivation's marketing and sales agents, offices and distributing points.

Distributions to Date Status

As of December 2015, Sanivation had registered 300 people on its subscription service and had treated over two tons of human waste. By late-2016, the team expects to service 1,000 Kenyan homes and hopes to reach their business break-even point of 2,000 household subscribers and 150 tons of processed waste per month by early 2017.

Toilet type

Container-based service

Evacuation method


Storage conditions

Container storage

Capacity (L)

26 L feces container, 9 L urine container

Time until emptying

Twice weekly collection frequency

Design Specifications

The Blue Box toilet design includes a wooden base created to fit locally available containers for urine and fecal collection. The top is a hinged wooden top that allows access to replace waste containers. This top can be locked closed for safety. A plastic toilet seat is attached to the hinged lid. The urine diverter is created from shaped and cut sheet metal to fit required sizes for comfortable and effective use. Sanivation operators install the toilet in the customer’s household. Customers receive training on how to use the toilet. Twice a week a Sanivation toilet service representative services every customer toilet in their respective households. In servicing the toilet, service representatives place a lid on both the urine and feces containers. These are removed through the hinged lid of the toilet. New empty, clean containers are replaced in the toilet. Feces containers are lined with plastic bags.Sanivation’s community health promoters speaks with the families about how the week went and checks the toilets to make sure they were used properly. By developing a personal relationship with each household, Sanivation can ensure that our customers are always satisfied. In addition, during installation Sanivation gives each household a contact card for additional questions or concerns.Interview with representative Collected waste is transported to Sanivation's work site where the feces is transferred into re-purposed metal paint drums, which are attached to large parabolic mirrors that act as solar energy concentrators. Concentrators heat the feces to a high enough temperature to inactivate pathogens and transform it into a sticky substance that can be used as a binding agent for a non-wood-based charcoal briquette.  

Product Schematics

Technical Support

Sanivation operators install the toilet in the customer’s household. Technical support is provided by the collection service providers.

Replacement Components

Replacement components are provided as part of the service contract.


Service providers recover any toilets that are defective or at end-of-life and recycle and dispose of them appropriately.

Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters

Blue Box toilet capacity - Feces: 26L Urine: 9L. Sanivation has published data regarding the performance of their fuel briquettes in comparison to traditional charcoal. Regarding the Sanivation toilet service 100% of excreta safely removed on a weekly basis.

Vetted Performance Status



Safe handling of waste material requires protective clothing.

Complementary Technical Systems

A desiccant cover material (such as ash) to place over fresh feces after every use.

Academic Research and References

The initial performance of the entire service model built around this toilet is available via:

Tilmans, S. et al., 2015,  Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti. Environment and Urbanization 27(1): 89-104

Sanivation, 2019, Sanivation Container-Based Sanitation (CBS) Waste Collection Service.

Goal 6. Available: https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal6

Compliance with regulations


Evaluation methods

Field trials

Other Information

A short film about Sanivation can be seen here. UN released a report titled Vast Energy in Human Waste about the market potential of waste to charcoal at $9.8 billion that references Sanivation's work in Kenya. Huffington Post covered the released: Human Waste Could Light up More than 138 Million Homes: Study

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