Updated on January 27, 2024


Created on July 26, 2020

Tesla's Powerwall

Upcoming Update

A completely automated system that can integrate solar power and storage to reduce reliance on the power grid.

Developed By
  1. Tesla
Tested By
  • Institute for Electrical Energy Storage Technology at Technical University of Munich
Content Partners


Product Description

Tesla’s Powerwall is a completely integrated battery energy storage system suitable for residential and small commercial applications. The system consists of a Li-ion battery that can be coupled to solar systems to store excess energy.

The Powerwall’s design allows users to connect it to any house or building’s electrical system. The batteries can also be used as a grid backup in countries with poor energy grids and high reliance on electricity, mobile communications, and mobile money, to soften energy shortages and prevent economic losses.

This product is targeted towards Solar power systems owners looking for reducing reliance on the power grid, at residential and small commercial scale. Power energy and communication utilities looking for a backup in case of power brownouts or blackouts on the main power grid

Target SDGs

SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

Market Suggested Retail Price


Target Users (Target Impact Group)

Household, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

Distributors / Implementing Organizations

Tesla, Distributed Power Africa.

Competitive Landscape

Direct competitors include Sunrun Brightbox.

Manufacturing/Building Method

The lithium cells are produced in the Tesla manufacturing facility in Nevada. The Powerwall uses lithium NMC (Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt) battery cells developed in collaboration with Panasonic. Production of lithium-ion batteries consist of three main stages:

  1. Electrode production
  2. Cell assembly
  3. Forming, aging, and testing
  Each manufacturer uses its own manufacturing processes, and there exist several possible cell designs. Tesla's Powerwall has a cylindrical design that has the advantage of fewer steps on the manufacturing process but has lower heat dissipation than other topologies, making it prone to overheating.

Intellectural Property Type


User Provision Model

For household and commercial clients, contact through Tesla's website is available for several countries.

Distributions to Date Status

As of April 29th, 2020 Tesla installed its 100,000th Powerwall battery pack.

Description of power outputs


Description of light points


Total lighting service (lumen-hours per solar-day)


Peak power rating (Wp)

7 kWp

Battery capacity (kWh; mAh)

13.5 kWh

Nominal battery voltage (V)

120/240 V

Battery type


User replaceable battery (yes/no)


Remote system diagnostics (yes/no)


Payment structure

Market price

Mobile service required (yes/no)


Design Specifications

Tesla's Powerwall is a fully-integrated AC battery system for residential and light commercial use. It consists of a rechargeable lithium-ion battery pack, which provides storage capacity for solar energy or grid-purchased energy. Powerwall detects grid outages and automatically becomes the house's main energy source. The product can be integrated with solar to store excess energy generated during the day. For varying utility energy prices within the day, the Powerwall can be set in Time-Based Control to maximize savings. The product also learns patterns of energy usage and solar generation, using stored energy to avoid purchasing electricity in high-cost hours. The physical dimensions of the product are 1150mm x 755mm x 147mm, weight 114 kg. The available mounting options are on the floor or wall-mounted.

Product Schematics

Technical Support

Technical support is provided by Tesla's customer support in each country.

Replacement Components

The components are not user-serviceable. For any repairs, users may contact the Tesla Certified Installer who installed the system.


Tesla's Powerwall has an estimated lifespan of 3 -10 years. Tesla provides a warranty of 10 years.

Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters

Designer specified performance targets include 100% self-powered for up to 7+ days.

Vetted Performance Status

The economic benefit of a Tesla's Powerwall system was assessed in a study conducted by the Institute for Electrical Energy Storage Technology, of the Technical University of Munich. Based on the Return of Investment calculation for different scenarios increasing electricity prices, they found that, for average single-family houses in Germany, the system is economically favorable for an annual load larger than 3,000 kWh and a PV-system of at least 3 kWp.


Tesla claims the following safety features about this product: It is child and pet friendly with no exposed wires or hot vents (touch-safe), water-resistant and dustproof for indoor or outdoor installation (weatherproof). About the safety concerns, Tesla informs that:

  1. The Powerwall installation and service requires knowledge of high voltage electricity and should only be performed by Tesla Certified Installers.
  2. A battery can present a risk of electrical shock, fire, or explosion from vented gases.
  3. Users can never open the case of the battery, otherwise, there exists the risk of exposure to chemical compounds including Cobaltum and Lithium.
  4. As the system is heavy (around 100 kg), the use of lift equipment is recommended.
  5. Do not insert foreign objects into any part of the Powerwall.
  6. Do not expose Powerwall or its components to a flame. Do not immerse Powerwall or its components into water or other fluids.
  7. Do not install Powerwall near to heating equipment.
  8. Do not use cleaning solvents, nor expose the system to flammable or harsh chemicals or vapors.
  9. Do not place Powerwall in storage condition, or permit the electrical feed to be served for more than one month without following Tesla's specifications for storage.
  10. Do not connect the Powerwall directly to photovoltaic solar wiring.
  11. Operate the battery within the specified temperature range (-30-60°C), otherwise, there exists a risk of damage.

Complementary Technical Systems

Up to 10 Powerwall systems can be placed together. The Powerwall can also be complemented with solar panels.

Academic Research and References

S. Rodrigues, F. Faria, A. R. Ivaki, N. Cafôfo, X. Chen, H. Mata-Lima, and F. Morgado-Dias, 2016, “Tesla Powerwall: Analysis of its Use in Portugal and United States”, International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 203-6218.

C. N. Truong, M. Naumann, R. Ch. Karl, M. Müller, A. Jossen, H. C. Hesse, 2016, “Economics of Residencial Photovoltaic Battery Systems in Germany: The Case of Tesla’s Powerwall”, Batteries, 2(2), pp. 14.

S. Rodrigues, F. Faria, A. Ivaki, N. Cafôfo, X. Chen, and F. Morgado-Dias  2015, “The Tesla Powerwall: Does it Bring Something New? A Market Analysis”, Conference Proceedings.

Lambert, F., 2020, Tesla installed its 100,000th Powerwall home battery pack, Electrek

McCabe L., 2023, Tesla Powerwall review: Good battery, great price, Energysage

Matiashe, F. S., 2019, Zimbabwe turns to Tesla batteries to keep its top mobile money player running as a power crisis deepens, Quartz

Compliance with regulations

The Tesla's Powerwall complies with the following certifications: UL 1642, UL 1741, UL 1973, UL 9540, IEEE 1547, UN 38.3.

Evaluation methods


Other Information

Installation of Powerwall 2 More details on Tesla powerwall review are available here Tesla Powerwall manual Peformance specification and Mechanical specification of Tesla powerwall

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