UC Berkeley CellScope
UC Berkeley Fletcher Lab & CellScope Team
While CellScope is still under development, specific target regions have not been selected, though research studies are being conducted around the world on its applications.
CellScope’s website states that it is testing the use of mobile microscopy with collaborators in Vietnam, India, Thailand, Cameroon, the Ivory Coast, and Hawaii.
Clinical tests have also been conducted in the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa and the Democratic Republic of Congo. More information on specific field studies conducted for CellScope can be found in this article.
Not yet available as the product is still under development for its applications to global health and disease diagnostics.
The technology is being commercialized through CellScope, Inc., a for-profit spinout that was founded in 2010. CellScope, Inc.’s first product is an iPhone otoscope that builds upon CellScope’s technology and enables parents and physicians to remotely diagnose ear infections in children, which is now commercially available.
This product is still under research and development and a price has not been released or suggested.
Costly and bulky traditional microscopes and the Foldscope, a paper-based microscope from Stanford University’s Prakash Lab.
Goal 3: to improve and promote good health.
Prototypes have demonstrated diagnostic-quality imaging of tuberculosis, malaria, and sickle cell disease.
CellScope aims to tackle tuberculosis, which annually kills more than 2 million people and sickens approximately 15 million, in places where laboratory facilities are scarce but mobile phone infrastructure is extensive. Additionally, the goal is to develop a new point-of-care diagnostic for many diseases that go undiagnosed in many countries, ranging from debilitating eye disorders to chronic blood parasites.
Information not available, as the CellScope technology for global health applications is still under research and development and not yet commercially available.
The CellScope technology is patent-protected.
Product not yet commercially available
None, as CellScope and its applications to disease diagnostics are still under research and development.
The CellScope is comprised of a mobile phone outfitted with standard microscopy optics parts (e.g. an eyepiece, tube, lenses, and light source). The functional prototypes consisted of the Nokia N73 camera phones, equipped with a 3.2 megapixel (2048×1536 pixel) CMOS camera with a 5.6×4.2 mm sensor, yielding an ∼2.7 µm pixel spacing. Similar off-the-shelf mobile phones with sufficient camera systems can be leveraged. The phone and optical components were mounted using an optical rail system, and laid out as in Figure 1a shown in the product schematics. A functional, handheld prototype is shown in Figure 1b.
The CellScope apparatus can be used for bright-field and fluorescence imaging (with additional filters and LED) of medical samples, followed by capture, analysis, and transmission of images for diagnosis. Ambient light (without a condenser) is typically sufficient for brightfield imaging, a white LED can be used for illumination in darker conditions. For fluorescence microscopy, set-up requires trans-illumination geometry incorporating an LED excitation source and filters in the optical train (see Figure 1a in the product schematics).
Brightfield images can be captured using the phone’s default camera settings, with the flash disabled. Fluorescent images can be captured in the cameras “Night” mode, with the flash disabled.
Schematic of layout for mobile phone microscopy, as available in journal publication.
(a) Mobile phone microscopy optical layout for fluorescence imaging. The same apparatus was used for brightfield imaging, with the filters and LED removed. Components only required for fluorescence imaging are indicated by “fluo.” Not to scale. (b) A current prototype, with filters and LED installed, capable of fluorescence imaging. The objective is not visible because it is contained within the optical tubing, and the sample is mounted adjacent to the metallic focusing knob. (c) Brightfield image of 6 µm fluorescent beads. (d) Fluorescent images of beads shown in (c). The field-of-view projected onto the camera phone CMOS is outlined. Scales bars are 10 µm.
None, as product is still not commercially available.
Capabilities such as: bright-field and fluorescent visualization of medical samples, followed by capture, analysis, and transmission of images critical for diagnosis. Resolution high enough to diagnose malaria from blood samples and tuberculosis from sputum samples.
Product is still under testing and evaluation. However, studies such as the one discussed in this article, a research paper titled Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d’Ivoire, are evaluating the performance and effectiveness of the CellScope technology.
The CellScope has been tested primarily by UC Berkeley Fletcher Lab in collaboration with researchers at UCSF, Chiang Mai University, Washington University St. Louis, Hanoi Lung Hospital, Vietnam National Tuberculosis Programme, University of Yoaundé I, University of Montpellier, University of Toronto, Siemens and L’Oreal.
3D printers for physical product.
CellScope has undergone extensive academic research. The foundational paper was published in 2009 in PLOS One Breslauer DN, Maamari RN, Switz NA, Lam WA, Fletcher DA(2009) Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006320
In this paper the team demonstrated the device’s potential for clinical use by imaging cells infected with malaria and tuberculosis. In all cases, the image resolution was high enough to identify morphology, or cell shape.
Additional research is listed on the CellScope website. Links to the papers are also included.
Product still under research and development, not available.
Clinical and field studies, along with further research and development in academic labs.
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