Distributors / Implementing Organizations
Not yet available as the product is still under development for its applications to global health and disease diagnostics. The technology is being commercialized through CellScope, Inc., a for-profit spinout that was founded in 2010. CellScope, Inc.'s first product is an iPhone otoscope that builds upon CellScope's technology and enables parents and physicians to remotely diagnose ear infections in children, which is now commercially available.
Information not available, as the CellScope technology for global health applications is still under research and development and not yet commercially available.
Intellectural Property Type
User Provision Model
The product is not yet commercially available.
Distributions to Date Status
None, as CellScope and its applications to disease diagnostics are still under research and development.
Ambient light (without a condenser), white light-emitting diode (LED) for illumination in darker conditions, color LED for fluorescence imaging
Tuberculosis, malaria, and sickle cell disease
Power supply type
Recharging only (smart phone powers device)
Indispensable equipment for function (Y/N)
Maintenance or calibration required by user at time of use? (Y/N)
The CellScope is comprised of a mobile phone outfitted with standard microscopy optics parts (e.g. an eyepiece, tube, lenses, and light source). The functional prototypes consisted of the Nokia N73 camera phones, equipped with a 3.2 megapixel (2048×1536 pixel) CMOS camera with a 5.6×4.2 mm sensor, yielding an ?2.7 µm pixel spacing. Similar off-the-shelf mobile phones with sufficient camera systems can be leveraged. The phone and optical components were mounted using an optical rail system, and laid out as in Figure 1a shown in the product schematics. A functional, handheld prototype is shown in Figure 1b. The CellScope apparatus can be used for bright-field and fluorescence imaging (with additional filters and LED) of medical samples, followed by capture, analysis, and transmission of images for diagnosis. Ambient light (without a condenser) is typically sufficient for brightfield imaging, a white LED can be used for illumination in darker conditions. For fluorescence microscopy, set-up requires trans-illumination geometry incorporating an LED excitation source and filters in the optical train (see Figure 1a in the product schematics). Brightfield images can be captured using the phone's default camera settings, with the flash disabled. Fluorescent images can be captured in the cameras “Night” mode, with the flash disabled. Spatial Resolution: 1.2 micrometers Magnification of 5x–60x.
None, as product is still not commercially available.
Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters
Capabilities such as: bright-field and fluorescent visualization of medical samples, followed by capture, analysis, and transmission of images critical for diagnosis. Resolution high enough to diagnose malaria from blood samples and tuberculosis from sputum samples.
Vetted Performance Status
Product is still under testing and evaluation. However, studies such as the one discussed in this article, a research paper titled Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d'Ivoire, are evaluating the performance and effectiveness of the CellScope technology.
Users must take appropriate precautions when using electrical devices.
Complementary Technical Systems
3D printers for physical product.
Academic Research and References
Kamgno, J., Pion, S., Chesnais, C., Bakalar, M., et al., 2017, A Test-and-Not-Treat Strategy for Onchocerciasis in Loa loa–Endemic Areas. N Engl J Med, Vol. 377, pp.2044-2052
Coulibaly, J., Ouattora, M., D’Ambrosio, M., et al., 2016, Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d’Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, Vol. 10
Chaisson, L., Reber, H., Phan, N., Switz, L., Nilsson, F., 2015, Evaluation of mobile digital light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, Vol.19, pp.1068-1072
Compliance with regulations
Product still under research and development, not available.