Afridev Hand Pump
UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank, and Malawi Gov't
A conventional lever hand pump to collect water from boreholes.
The Afridev Hand Pump is a conventional lever action handpump. It is designed for heavy-duty use, serving communities of up to 300 persons.
Malawi, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Ghana, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and other countries in Africa. Asia, Pakistan and Afghanistan have begun to adopt the design.
SK Industries, among other local manufacturers varying by region. In Pakistan and Afghanistan, derivatives of the Afridev Pump with the names Indus, Kabul and Pamir Pump have been developed.
India Mark II Handpump
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Rural communities that do not have access to a reliable water source.
All steel parts can be locally manufactured. The specifications of each individual part from SKAT with engineering drawings are available online in the Afridev Handpump Specification document. Underground components must be manufactured by local companies who manufacture PVC-U pipes and have engineering processing knowledge. Pumps can be mass manufactured.
Individuals may purchase pumps from local manufacturers directly.
Description of the pump type
Power required, measured in watts
Manufacturer-specified discharge rate, measured at a specific head
Maximum depth of water the pump can pull
Piston nominal diameter, measured in centimeters
The Afridev is a conventional lever action handpump which is fully corrosion resistant and easy to install. Pump Materials include:
- “Open top” cylinder (the piston can be removed from the cylinder without dismantling the rising main)
- Foot valve is retractable with a fishing tool
- Pump head, handle and pump stand: galvanized steel
- Pump rods: stainless steel or FRP rods (fibre glass reinforced plastic)
- Plunger and foot valve: brass or plastic.
- Rising main of PVC-U pipe (Ø 63 mm)
- Cylinder of PVC-U pipe with brass liner (Ø 50 mm)
The Afridev is meant to be used under the following conditions:
- Type of well: borehole or dug well.
- Depths to be used: 10-45 m
- Cylinder diameter: 50.0 mm
The Afridev Pump has excellent potential for community-based maintenance. Rural Water Sanitation Network provides technical support in an extensive manual which outlines guidelines for weekly, monthly, and yearly checks of the pump.
Most components can be locally manufactured. The neoprene rings used as piston seals may not be locally available as they are much more difficult to manufacture.
With regular maintenance of parts, the entire pump can last about 15 years. Neoprene rings used as piston seals wear out in about 1 year. The pump requires the rings, so unless they can be manufactured locally, the pump becomes unusable. According to RWSN, the handpump is guaranteed for 12 months from the date of installation, or 18 months from the date of supply, whichever is earlier.
The Afridev Pump is a public domain pump defined by RWSN specifications noted in the vetted performance section.
Performance measurements from the manufacturer:
- Maximum Stroke: 225 mm
- Approximate discharge (75 watt input): 1.4 m³/hr (10 m head), 1.1 m³/hr (15 m head), 0.9 m³/hr (20 m head), 0.7 m³/hr (30 m head)
- Pumping lift: 10 – 45 m
- Population served per unit: ~ 300 people
- Households per unit: Up to 50
No known hazards
The pump requires a concrete slab to be constructed underneath the pump to reduce the amount of loose, contaminated water that would otherwise flow through the soil and down into the water supply.
Cloutier, M., Rowley, P., The feasibility of renewable energy sources for pumping clean water in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study for Central Nigeria. Renewable Energy. 2011 Aug; 36(8):2220-2226.
Mann, E., Sustainable water supply for a remote rural community in Mozambique, Greener Management International. 2003 Jun; 42:58-66.
Chavula, G., Chilima, G., Mulwafu, W., Nkhoma, B., Community based management approach in the management of water resources by different organizations in the Lake Chilwa basin, Malawi, University of Malawi – The Polytechnic; 2015 Mar 12.
Colin, J., VLOM for rural water supply: lessons from experience, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Loughborough University; 1999 Mar.
Stewart, E., How to select the proper human-powered pump for potable water, Michigan Technological University, 2003, [Dissertation].
Field and lab testing
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