CTI Water Chlorinator
Compatible Technology International (CTI)
A flow-through system that feeds chlorine doses into passing water.
The CTI Water Chlorinator is a non-electrical water disinfectant system that was designed for communities with gravity supply water systems. The Water Chlorinator attaches to a gravity-fed water tank, delivering a controlled dosage of chlorine to a community’s water tank. The chlorine kills most disease-causing pathogens, making the water safe to drink.
Nicaragua and Central America
Chlorinator unit can be built and installed for about USD200, and average cost of chlorine tablets is USD3 – USD10 per month depending on the size of the population served.
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Communities with small scale gravity-fed distribution systems.
Chlorinators are manufactured locally from PVC pipe, fittings, and ¼ inch (6 mm) sheet PVC. The system is constructed with simple tools and assembled with standard PVC cement and stainless steel screws or PVC pegs. The body of the unit is a 4 inch (100 mm) PVC tee, with a 9 cm nipple and coupling on each end. A 4 inch (100 mm) riser, 30 cm long, is fitted into the branch of the tee, and is closed on top by a cap. More detail can be found in the information manual.
In Nicaragua, CTI and partners train villagers to install and maintain the water chlorinator. They provide sanitation education in partnership with the health ministry and identify dedicated village volunteers to replace chlorine and maintain systems. CTI maintains chlorine banks with local partners to restock systems and periodically monitor their maintenance.
Chlorinators have been installed in more than 600 rural communities in Nicaragua, providing safe water to more than 340,000 villagers.
The chlorinator must be installed on: 1) a gravity fed system, 2) where influent water with >10 ntu is filtered before passing through the chlorinator, and 3) where the flow through the chlorinator is between 2 and 10 gpm (.13 and .63 liters/sec). The chlorinator is manufactured from: 1 4″ x 4″ PVC T, 21″ of 4″ PVC pipe, 2 4″ couplings, 1 4″ cap, 17″ of 3″ pvc pipe, 1.3 square feet of 1/4″ PVC sheet a small container of PVC cement and 11 #4 x 1/2″ stainless steel sheet metal screws.
Formal water committees, called CAPS (Comite de Agua Potable y Saneamiento, or Potable Water and Sanitation Committee) are trained in operation and maintenance, including free chlorine residual testing.
To keep a constant supply of chlorine tablets within short distance from local villages, CTI has established more than 20 regional chlorine banks that store small inventories of tablets for sale to local villages. These banks keep records indicating which communities are replacing their chlorine.
CTI recommends estimating chlorine usage at two 140 g tablets per week. This ranges greatly depending on the water flow rate and number of operating hours.
For an average ground water supply the maximum flow that one chlorinator can treat (including bypassed flow) is about 20 gpm (about 1.3 liters/sec).
CTI carried out an evaluation in Nicaragua.
In-house CTI evaluation.
Water should be stored in a safe storage container with a lid and tap to preserve water quality.
A study by CTI was conducted during March – June 2014 in 37 rural communities located within the departments of Matagalpa and Jinotega, and in villages with a typical, closed, gravity-fed community water system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for presence of bacteria. The study concluded that chlorination of rural water sources through the CTI-8 significantly reduces bacterial contamination of drinking water.
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