Lotus Water Chlorine Dosing Device
Stanford University with International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research
A chlorine dispenser to attach to flowing water systems.
The Lotus Water Project aims to reduce the transmission of water-borne diseases through the implementation of community-level water disinfection throughout urban slums. This chlorination device (currently a prototype) utilizes basic principles of fluid mechanics to dose water exiting a hand pump with the necessary amount of chlorine, making it safe to drink and store for later use. The chlorinator relies on pressure differences created by the device’s geometry to inject a dose of chlorine proportional to the amount of water flowing through the hand pump without using electricity (i.e. venturi effect). Interview with representative
Lotus water was specifically designed for use in slums of Bangladesh. Interview with representative.
As a prototype, Stanford Researchers and the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh are deploying the product. Lotus Water is developing a strategy for scaling its approach to water disinfection, one option being establishing an independent organization with full-time employees and a distribution network. Interview with representative
This water system is expected to be leased to landlords, therefore prices are covered by small increases in renter’s payments, estimated in the amount of $0.25 USD per month, per household. Interview with representative
Evidence Action’s Chlorine Dispensers
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Community-level water treatment system for urban slums and other low-income urban areas.
The key parts are currently manufactured using 3D printers. All parts were purchased in Dhaka, Bangladesh with exception for the regulator and constant head tank. Interview with representative
Open Source. Interview with representative
Landlords lease the device from Lotus Water company for the community’s water source. The landlord pays Lotus Water directly, and increases rent slightly to disperse the cost of the chlorination system evenly to each tenant; tenants pay the increased rent each month.
Active chemical and concentration (%) of the product (not the concentration of the treated water)
Form of the chemical disinfection
Does the water flow through a treatment system or does it remain in a container?
Is the dose of the chemical administered automatically or manually?
Manufacturer-specified dosing quantity
Manufacturer-specified time until water is potable, measured in minutes
Remaining level of chemical concentration after manufacturer-specified contact time
Laboratory-evaluated log scale removal rate of bacteria
Laboratory-evaluated log scale removal rate of viruses
Laboratory-evaluated log scale removal rate of protozoa
Reduction levels of heavy metals and/or arsenic through this treatment system
How long can the treated water remain protected and safe to drink?
Manufacturer-specified maximum level of inlet turbidity (NTU)
The chlorinator is comprised of three core components—a venturi, a chlorine reservoir with a float valve (or constant-head tank), and a secondary chlorine reservoir. The venturi connects to the outflow of the hand pump and uses the venturi effect to draw in chlorine through an attached line.
During prototype phase, support is provided by field staff based at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh; At maturity, Lotus Water Technicians will provide support. Interview with representative
Not currently available for sale, but can be produced on a case-by-case basis. Interview with representative
Technicians remove plastic chlorine bottles from each device site approximately once a month. The device is estimated to need full replacement every 2 years. Interview with representative
Lotus Water provides water that is not only safe when it comes out of the tap, but is safe in storage because of the residual chlorine. Interview with representative
Field Testing ongoing. Within one three-month period, 1,100 samples were tested, of which 86% fell within WHO standards. Interview with representative
Lotus Water was prototyped at Stanford Univeristy, then tested and modified in Dhaka, Bangladesh with the help of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Interview with representative
Plastic chlorine bottles to be removed from each device approximately once a month. The device is estimated to need full replacement every 2 years.
Filtration prior to treatment can reduce the amount of chlorine needed, if source water is turbid.
NSF / ANSI Standard 60: Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals: Lotus Water is not specifically listed as complying, but dozens other companies selling sodium hypochlorite products for drinking water treatment are approved. This certifies that chemicals are safe at the maximum dose and that any impurities are below the maximum allowable limit.
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Registration: Lotus Water is not registered with the EPA, sodium hypochlorite has been registered since 1957, and the EPA issued a registration standard in 1986 saying that sodium hypochlorite products (with 5.25% – 12.5% chlorine) do not need individual registration review. The document also states that, “widely used in disinfecting water supplies for nearly a century, the hypochlorites have been proven safe and practical to use.
World Health Organization (WHO):The World Health Organization does not currently approve products for use to treat drinking water. However, the Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality list liquid NaOCl with concentrations between 0.5% and 1% as a point-of-use water treatment method.
WHO recommendations for chlorine dosing and contact times; Randomized controlled trial to evaluate impacts planned for Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interview with representative
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