Johkasou tanks are wastewater treatment tanks that can be set up in areas without sewage infrastructure.
Johkasou tanks are commercialized wastewater treatment tanks that can be set up in areas without sewage infrastructure, combining both anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. Steps include a solid-liquid separation tank, an anaerobic filter bed tank, a moving bed tank or membrane bioreactor, a carrier filter tank or sedimentation tank, followed by the disinfection tank. The product is designed and manufactured by Kubota in Japan, and distributed primarily in Asia.
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Sample projects exist for users in hospitals, a restaurant, factory domestic wastewater, government offices, and detached houses
Manufactured in Japan for small, medium, and large application settings.
Patent not listed; membrane bioreactor listed as proprietary
Users can contact local sales information centers
1,000,000 units have been distributed in Japan, and an additional 1,000 distributed overseas
Flow rate of the equipment
Type of wastewater treatment process
How effective is the process at BOD removal?
How effective is the process at COD removal?
How effective is the process at NH4-N removal?
How effective is the process at total suspended solid removal?
How effective is the process at total phosphorus removal?
How effective is the process at fecal coliform removal?
Schematic of Johkasou Processes
Provided by Kubota
Submerged membrane unit
Manufacturer states product has 90% or higher BOD removal rate and delivers treated water quality with BOD of 20 mg/L or less (in case influent BOD is 200 mg/L).
No third-party testing
Blower must remain on for microorganisms (stopping will result in untreated wastewater and bad odor). Do not throw foreign objects (such as rubber, absorbent cotton, food wastewater, or cooking oil) in toilet to avoid clogging. Do not add chemicals (hydrochloric acid, insecticide, deodorant, chlorine agent, etc.) into the tank. Always close the manhole cover (and lock it if it has a locking mechanism). Prevent children from playing near the wastewater treatment plant. When closing a cover with bolt nuts, tighten cap nuts evenly using a special opening/closing handle. Be careful not to lose parts such as washers and gasket. Remove small stones and other foreign objects from the frame. Do not put any objects on the manhole, blower or power cable, or in the nearby area. Be sure to keep combustible or hazardous things away.
Power source for blower
Ewiss, M.Z., Ahmed, Z.A., et al. 2017. Application Of The Japanese Johkasou Decentralized Sewage Wastewater System In Egypt. Sylwan, 161, pp. 180-193.
Gaulke, L.S., 2006. On-site wastewater treatment and reuses in Japan. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Water Management 159, pp. 103-109.
Huelgas, A., 2009. On-site treatment of higher-load graywater by membrane bioreactor. Dissertation for the School of Engineering, Hokkaido University.
Lam, L. Kurisu, K. Hanaki, K., 2015. Comparative environmental impacts of source-separation systems for domestic wastewater management in rural China. Journal of Cleaner Production 104, pp. 185-198.
Nguyen, L.H. Mohan, G. et al., 2016. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam. The Scientific World Journal.
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