Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) Bags
Larry Murdock at Purdue University
The Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags are high density, hermetic polyethylene bags, with ultra-thick walls of 80 microns, intended to maintain the viability of cowpeas for planting, minimize mold growth and accumulation of mycotoxins and control storage insect pests, thereby enabling farmers to store their grains without the use of insecticides.
The PCIS projects (PCIS2 and PCIS3) carried out research to explore the usefulness and value of PICS bags of crops including maize, sorghum, wheat, rice, peanut, common bean, hibiscus seed, mung bean, pigeon pea and bambara groundnut.
West and Central African countries (Chad, Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sénégal), Afghanistan
Purdue University in partnership with manufacturers private entrepreneurs and vendors.
Grain storage systems
Goal 2: improve food security and nutrition by preventing of gastrointestinal issues due to poorly preserved food and maintaining storage of staple food. Storage is a key challenge due to insect damage after harvest. In some cases farmers turn to insecticides, which are often ineffective, expensive or dangerous when misused.
Common bean farmers/ producers in Africa for cowpea and other grain storage in the off-harvest season.
Mass produced. PICS project staff members currently work with several African-based plastic manufacturers to produce PICS triple-layer bags.
African entrepreneurs and rural communities are starting new businesses focused on purchasing the PICS bags from manufacturers and selling them to farmersthrough their retail networks. Farmers can buy it from manufacturers and local businesses, approved vendors in 50kg and 100kg capacity sizes at a cost between $2 and $4 USD. Available at market price, depending on the region.
In 5 years, more than 2.4 million PICS bags were sold in West and Central Africa.
Triple layered storage bags made of high density polyethylene, with ultra-thick 80 micron walls. PICS were originally designed for storage of cowpeas, an African staple, specifically.
Available in the form of an instruction manual
•PICS bags are used and reused to store cowpea up to 4 consecutive years.
•Once PICS bags are no longer fit to store cowpea, they are used for other purposes.
•Reused PICS bags reduce the cost of storage for small-scale.
•Using damaged PICS bags for other purposes reduces the environmental impact.
PICS bags can be used and reused to store cowpea for up to 4 consecutive years and reduce loss of cowpea grain to insect infestation.
Physical activity and reproduction of bruchids in PICS bags ceases due to hypoxia.
•Hypoxia is due to insect metabolism and oxygen barriers presented by the bag walls. •Oxygen deprivation deprives the bruchids of their most important source of water. •PICS bags are used and reused to store cowpea up to four consecutive years. •Once PICS bags are no longer fit to store cowpea, they are used for other purposes.
A variety of research findings on economic viability and effectiveness of PICS bags with respect to crops beyond cowpea is listed here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0022474X/58
•Storage of conventional farmer cassava chips in PICS Bags was only successful till 4 months not beyond. •Losses in PICS bags exceeded 8% after 6 months of storage. •PICS bags prolong only the storage of chips by approximately 1 month. •Chips size did not allowed oxygen reduction in PICS bags leading to hermetic conditions
Academic Research Center at Purdue University
Hermetic sealing is compromised by bag wall ruptures. Once PICS bags are no longer fit to store cowpea, they can be used for other purposes.
Available here: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/PICS3/journal_articles.php
Vales, M.I., Ranga Rao, G.V., Sudini, H., Patil, S.B., & Murdock, L.L. (2014) Effective and economic storage of pigeonpea seed in triple layer plastic bags. Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 29-38
Murdock, L.L., & Baoua, I.B. (2014) On Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) Technology: Background, Mode of Action, Future Prospects. Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 3-11
Baoua, I., Amadou, L., Ousmane, B., Baributsa, D., & Murdock, L.L. (2014) PICS bags for postharvest storage of maize in West Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 20-28
Baoua, I., Amadou, L., Baributsa, D., & Murdock, L.L. (2014) Triple bag hermetic technology for post-harvest preservation of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 48-52
Affognon, H., Njoroge, A.W., Mutungi, C.M., Manono, J., Lamuka, P.O. & Murdock, L.L. (2014). Storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) and pigeonpea grains (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp) in hermetic triple-layer bags stops losses caused by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 39-47
Baoua, I. B., Amadou, L., Lowenberg-DeBoer, J. D., & Murdock, L. L. (2013) Side by side comparison of GrainPro and PICS bags for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain in Niger. Journal of Stored Products Research 54, 13-16
Baoua, I. B., Amadou, L., & Murdock, L.L. (2013) Triple bagging for cowpea storage in rural Niger: Questions farmers ask. Journal of Stored Products Research 52, 86-92
Murdock, L.L., Sithole-Niang, I., and Higgins, T.J.V. (2013) Transforming the cowpea, an African orphan staple crop grown predominantly by women, pp. 221-232 In Successful Agricultural Innovation in Emerging Economies: New Genetic Technologies for Global Food Production (edited by D.J. Bennett and R.C. Jennings), Cambridge University Press
Baoua, I. B., Amadou, L., Margam, V., & Murdock, L.L. (2012) Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain. Journal of Stored Products Research 49, 171-175
Baoua, I. B., Margam, V., Amadou, L., & Murdock, L.L. (2012) Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger. Journal of Stored Products Research 51, 81-85
Murdock, L.L., Margam, V., Baoua, I., Balfe, S., & Shade, R.E. (2012) Death by desiccation: effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids. Journal of Stored Products Research 49, 166-170
Hell, K., Edoh Ognakossan, K., Lamboni, Y., (2014) PICS hermetic storage bags ineffective in controlling infestations of Prostephanus truncates and Dinoderus spp. In traditional cassava chips. Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 53-58
Williams, S. B., Baributsa, D., Woloshuk, C. (2014). Assessing Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags to mitigate fungal growth and aflatoxin contamination. Journal of Stored Products Research.
Jones, M., Alexander, C., Lowenberg-DeBoer, J., (2014) A simple methodology for measuring profitability of on-farm storage pest management in developing countries. Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 67-76
Jones, M., Alexander, C., Ricker-Gilbert, J., Olynk Widmar, N.J. and Lowenberg-DeBoer, J., 2012, “Do Insect and Mold Damage Affect Maize Prices in Africa? Experimental Evidence from Malawi, revision submitted toAmerican journal of Agricultural Economics.
Ricker-Gilbert, J. and M. Jones. 2013. “Does Access to Storage Protectant Increase Smallholder Adoption of Improved Maize Seed? Insight from Malawi.” (Publication pending in Food Policy journal).
Kadjo, D., Ricker-Gilbert, J., Alexander, C., Abdoulaye, T. and Baco, M.N., 2014, “How do storage losses, technology, and price seasonality affect food security in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from maize farmers in Benin”, submitted toFood Security.
Purdue University Agriculture Center: PICS bags have been evaluated to determine whether they maintain the viability of the seed for planting and if they minimize mold growth and accumulation of mycotoxins. Economic research under PICS2 assessed the cost-effectiveness of PICS triple-layer bags for promising crops. Preliminary economic analyses was conducted to estimate the benefits of the technology compared to returns on other storage options and to other investments available in rural areas.
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