Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet
The Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet is a dry sanitation system consisting of squat type toilet pan with three ports for solids, urine and washing water, designed at IIT Bombay.
The Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet is a dry sanitation system consisting of squat type toilet pan with three ports for solids, urine and washing water, designed by IIT Bombay. This technology was designed for communities in India with less access to water for flushing, as the separation of liquids from the solid waste allows it to be aerobically decomposed over time and ultimately land applied as manure.
The Dry-San Toilet system can be acquired directly from manufacturer or built in place, the design manual and guidelines are ready for distribution to NGOs and/or self-help groups.
Depends upon size, one estimate states if not made in bulk and including labor it can cost up to ~1000 USD (Rs 70,000)Converted June 2019
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Target users include households, communal public toilets, businesses, and target buyers may also include governments and non-governmental organizations.
The Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet can be manufactured by CTECH, a Sine-IITB Company in India. The Design Manual & Guidelines are also ready for distribution to NGOs and other groups who would like to build and install the units in their respective areas of operation.
These toilets are available directly from the manufacturer. The design manual is also available to NGOs and other groups for DIY construction.
There are about 20 prototype installations in place.Interview with representative
Type of toilet
Method of evacuation
How the fecal sludge is stored
The holding volume of the containment
Time until emptying is estimated to be needed
The toilet has three ports to separate urine, washing water, and solid waste. The squat style toilet pan is made from stainless steel, and has heel supports to assist in getting up after usage. Pit sizes depend upon construction specifics, but estimates for a family of five indicate 10 years prior to waste removal. Waste can be land applied as manure after decomposition (website states approximately 20/24 months). The digester tank is 2m x 1m x 1.2m.Interview with representative
All the technical support for installation and maintenance is provided during installation.Interview with representative
The stainless steel squat pan will likely last more than 20 years prior before it needs to be replaced.
The lifecycle depends upon the number of users and pit size. The manufacturer estimates that due to the volume reduction the digester tank of 2m x 1m x 1.2m can be used by a family of 6 for more than 10 years without opening of tank for removal of the digested matter.Interview with representative
Designer specified targets include being waterless, aerobic decomposition of solids, a manure end product, being easy to manufacture, and being easy to maintain.
No third party testing has been found, though = initial prototypes underwent field trials by the manufacturer.Interview with representative
There should be no seepage of rainwater into the solid waste pit to ensure decomposition. The squat pan should be cleaned regularly. Household waste should not enter the pit. Chemical additives should not be used.
There are no regulations with regard to Dry Sanitation in IndiaInterview with representative
Field testing was done when the Dry-San Toilet was used by about 30 persons daily for about a year. It was regularly monitored for effective digestion of fecal matter, reduction of volume, separation of urine and feedback from users.Interview with representative
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