Updated on January 3, 2024


Created on July 31, 2019

Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet

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The Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet is a dry sanitation system consisting of squat type toilet pan with three ports for solids, urine and washing water, designed at IIT Bombay.

Tested By
  • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay
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Product Description

The Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet is a dry sanitation system consisting of squat type toilet pan with three ports for solids, urine and washing water, designed by IIT Bombay. This technology was designed for communities in India with less access to water for flushing, as the separation of liquids from the solid waste allows it to be aerobically decomposed over time and ultimately land applied as manure.

Target SDGs

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

Market Suggested Retail Price


Target Users (Target Impact Group)

Household, Community, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, Public Sector Agencies, NGOs

Distributors / Implementing Organizations

The Dry-San Toilet system can be acquired directly from manufacturer or built in place, the design manual and guidelines are ready for distribution to NGOs and/or self-help groups.

Manufacturing/Building Method

The Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet can be manufactured by CTECH, a Sine-IITB Company in India. The Design Manual & Guidelines are also ready for distribution to NGOs and other groups who would like to build and install the units in their respective areas of operation.

Intellectural Property Type


User Provision Model

These toilets are available directly from the manufacturer. The design manual is also available to NGOs and other groups for DIY construction.

Distributions to Date Status

There are about 20 prototype installations in place.Interview with representative

Toilet type

Pit latrine

Evacuation method


Storage conditions

Pits for solids, urine and washing water

Capacity (L)


Time until emptying

~10 years

Design Specifications

The toilet has three ports to separate urine, washing water, and solid waste. The squat style toilet pan is made from stainless steel, and has heel supports to assist in getting up after usage. Pit sizes depend upon construction specifics, but estimates for a family of five indicate 10 years prior to waste removal. Waste can be land applied as manure after decomposition (website states approximately 20/24 months). The digester tank is 2m x 1m x 1.2m.Interview with representative

Product Schematics

Technical Support

All the technical support for installation and maintenance is provided during installation.Interview with representative

Replacement Components

The stainless steel squat pan will likely last more than 20 years prior before it needs to be replaced.


The lifecycle depends upon the number of users and pit size. The manufacturer estimates that due to the volume reduction the digester tank of 2m x 1m x 1.2m can be used by a family of 6 for more than 10 years without opening of tank for removal of the digested matter.Interview with representative

Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters

Designer specified targets include being waterless, aerobic decomposition of solids, a manure end product, being easy to manufacture, and being easy to maintain.

Vetted Performance Status

No third party testing has been found, though the manufacturer has prototype results and sponsorship from the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation in India.


There should be no seepage of rainwater into the solid waste pit to ensure decomposition. The squat pan should be cleaned regularly. Household waste should not enter the pit. Chemical additives should not be used.

Complementary Technical Systems

None listed

Academic Research and References

Munshi K., 2013, Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet, IIT Bombay. 

IIT Bombay, Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet (dry sanitation system), CTech. 

FutureEnTech, 2015, IIT-Bombay Prof Kishore designed a Waterless Toilet System ‘Dry-San Hygienic Rural Toilet’ to help Rural Sanitation . Available: https://futureentech.com/iit-bombay-kishore-waterless-toilet-rural-india/ 

Goal 6. Available: https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal6

Compliance with regulations

There are no regulations with regard to Dry Sanitation in India.Interview with representative

Evaluation methods

Field testing was done when the Dry-San Toilet was used by about 30 persons daily for about a year. It was regularly monitored for effective digestion of fecal matter, reduction of volume, separation of urine and feedback from users.Interview with representative

Other Information

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