MSR/Stanford Venturi Doser
MSR Global Health
The MSR-Stanford Venturi Doser delivers consistent doses of chlorine to water at public water kiosks.
The MSR-Stanford Venturi Doser is a chlorine doser developed by MSR Global Health, PATH, SWAP Kenya, Tufts University, and Stanford University. The Venturi Doser is installed directly onto the water system of drinking water kiosks to automatically inject a precise dose of chlorine as the water flows. The doser is based on the venturi effect. Water flows through the device and sucks in the appropriate amount of liquid chlorine to dose the water. The doser has no moving parts and requires no electricity to operate.
Bangladesh and Kenya
This product is currently in a prototype stage and not available commercially. The product will cost 150 USD when it is taken to mass production.
During a trial in Kenya, they offered four 6-month service packages to kiosk owners including standard lease (15 USD/month), standard lease plus chlorine delivery (18 USD/month), lease-to-own (42 USD/month), and lease-to-own plus chlorine delivery (45 USD/month).
SDG 6: Clean water and sanitation
Targeted users include urban and rural, low-income communities who access water kiosks.
The prototype is currently manufactured by MSR in Seattle. The chlorine solution can be sourced locally.
The product is still in its prototype stage and cannot be acquired by users currently.
The product has been installed at 170 kiosks supplying to 10,000 people to measure long term performance.
Active chemical and concentration (%) of the product (not the concentration of the treated water)
Form of the chemical disinfection
Does the water flow through a treatment system or does it remain in a container?
Is the dose of the chemical administered automatically or manually?
Manufacturer-specified dosing quantity
Manufacturer-specified time until water is potable, measured in minutes
Remaining level of chemical concentration after manufacturer-specified contact time
Laboratory-evaluated log scale removal rate of bacteria
Laboratory-evaluated log scale removal rate of viruses
Laboratory-evaluated log scale removal rate of protozoa
Reduction levels of heavy metals and/or arsenic through this treatment system
How long can the treated water remain protected and safe to drink?
Manufacturer-specified maximum level of inlet turbidity (NTU)
The MSR/Stanford Venturi Doser is installed directly into the water systems in public kiosks and automatically injects water with a precise dose of chlorine as it produces water for customers. The product uses the venturi effect, which means the product requires no moving parts or electricity. Liquid chlorine fills the chlorine tank which flows into the float tank. Water flows through the device from a larger to a smaller section and sucks an appropriate amount of liquid chlorine to treat the water before being discharged to the customer. The chlorinator uses commercially available Waterguard as its liquid source.
During trials of the prototype technical support was provided by the manufacturer.
The manufacturer cites a dosing of 1 ppm and 1.5 ppm free chlorine over a flow rate range of 20-40 L/min as performance criteria.
SWAP in partnership with Stanford University conducted a study across 170 water kiosks supplying to 10,000 people living in Bangladesh and Kenya. It was determined that point-of-chlorination reduced contamination of fecal indicator bacteria in drinking water by 70% and reduced child diarrhea in children by 23% (95% CI 9-35%; N=4227).
Testing has been conducted by Stanford University/PATH to determine a dosing of 1 ppm and 1.5 ppm free chlorine over a flow rate of 20-40 L/min.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) states free residual chlorine post chlorine dosing should not exceed 5 mg/L if it is to be considered for lifetime use.
Filtration prior to treatment can reduce the amount of chlorine required if the source water is turbid.
Germann, L., 2019, Evaluation of suitable automatic chlorination devices for gravity-driven membrane water kiosks in Uganda. Masters thesis, Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
Powers, J., et al., 2018, Evaluating the Technical Performance and Sales Viability of a Novel Venturi Chlorine Doser at Drinking Water kiosks in Kisumu, Kenya. 2018 Water and Health: Where Science meets Policy.
Sodium hypochlorite products for drinking water treatment, used in the Venturi doser, comply with NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 to ensure chemicals are safe at maximum dose and impurities are below the maximum allowable limit.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality list Sodium Hypochlorite with concentrations between 0.5% and 1% as a point-of-use water treatment method.
The Venturi Doser is evaluated for the removal of faecal indicator bacteria (70%) at point-of-chlorination during randomized trials.
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