Updated on December 29, 2023


Created on August 4, 2016

Safe Water Book


The Safe Water Book is a book made up of pages that filter water but also serves as an instructional manual.

Developed By
  1. Folia Water
Tested By
  • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Virginia
Content Partners
  1. Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technologies (CAWST)


Product Description

The Safe Water Book, a product by Folia Water is both a water filter and an instruction manual for how and why to clean drinking water. This product was discontinued in 2016 and has been replaced by Folia Filters, which use the same filtration technology but are redesigned into a cone-shape based on user feedback.

Target SDGs

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

Target Users (Target Impact Group)


Distributors / Implementing Organizations

This product was discontinued as of July 2016.

Manufacturing/Building Method

Absorbent blotting papers are made from bleached softwood kraft pulp manufactured by FPInnovations and are embedded with silver nanoparticles. Water is treated during filtration through the papers.

Intellectural Property Type


User Provision Model

This product was discontinued in July 2016.

Target use case


Manufacturer-specified flow rate (L/hr)


Bacteria reduction

2 log

Type of membrane filtration

Microfiltration: Absorbent blotting papers made from bleached softwood kraft pulp

Virus reduction


Protozoa reduction


Heavy metals and/or arsenic reduction


Maximum recommended influent turbidity level (NTU)


Effluent turbidity levels (NTU)


Material of construction

bleached softwood kraft pulp embedded with silver nanoparticles

Safe water storage capacity (L)


Manufacturer-specified lifetime volume (L)

100 L of water per page

Design Specifications

The pages of the book consist of bleached softwood kraft pulp that are embedded with silver nanoparticles.

Product Schematics

Technical Support

Provided by manufacturer or distributor

Replacement Components



Each page can treat 100 liters of water and each book can last for up to 4 years.

Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters

Filter papers remove bacteria from water.

Vetted Performance Status

Between 4.8 and 5.1 log reduction of total coliform concentration in water filtered through the paper. Academic research by the University of Virginia and McGill University.



Complementary Technical Systems

Safe storage container to protect treated water from recontamination.

Academic Research and References

Theresa A Dankovich, Jonathan S Levine et al. Inactivation of bacteria from contaminated streams in Limpopo, South Africa by silver or copper nanoparticle paper filters; Environment Science: Water Research and Technology, 2016.

Theresa A Dankovich, Derek G. Gray, Bactericidal Paper Impregnated with Silver Nanoparticles for Point-of-Use Water Treatment, Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(5), 2011.

Compliance with regulations

Silver and/or copper elution is reported to be below USEPA secondary guideline values.

Evaluation methods

Field and laboratory evaluations

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