Bear Valley Ventures
The Tiger Toilet is a pour-flush pit latrine toilet which uses vermifiltration to treat waste.
The Tiger Toilet sanitation technology consists of a bathroom superstructure and a pit-biodigester employing vermifilration technology. The vermifiltration technology uses earthworms to decompose the waste from latrines rapidly into vermi-compost, while liquids drain out of the system. The Tiger Toilet is currently being developed and sold by EaSol Pvt Ltd.
India, Uganda, Myanmar
Locally manufacturer vermicimposting toilets, which can generally be constructed by any individual by digging a pit with suitable drainage and adding bedding materials and Eisenia foetida worms.
Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
Target users include households in rural communities, households in peri-urban areas, and people living in displaced-person camps.
The Tiger Toilet superstructures are constructed with concrete using a designed cast. The vermifiltration technology, consisting of tiger worms, bedding material and drainage material, are installed into a excavated pit (sized for the population of users). All materials can be sourced locally by the manufacturer and the users.
The manufacturer currently sells and installs Tiger Toilets across India in addition to providing support to monitor performance every 3-4 months.
Over 1200 toilets
Type of toilet
Method of evacuation
How the fecal sludge is stored
The holding volume of the containment
Time until emptying is estimated to be needed
The Tiger Toilet system was designed to counter the problem of latrine filling through vermifiltration. This passive process degrades and recycles waste by integrating composting worms, bedding materials, and a drainage layer into a pit latrine. In this design, vermifiltration has resulted in 100% degredation of faecal solids, leaving 15% of the waste weight remaining in the pit in the form of vermi-compost. The optimal design produced with the Tiger Toilet results in an average COD removal of 87% and a 99% reduction in pathogens.
Technical support is provided by the manufacturer.
Replacement components for the toilet superstructure can be sourced locally. The biodigester pit does not include any moving part, and therefore does not require replacement components.
The pit of a Tiger Toilet can operate for five years without requiring emptying.
The manufacturer specifies performance targets related to cost of construction, no energy input required for the self-regulating digestion ecosystem, and safe user operation because the handling of sludge is not required.
The toilet system has been tested by Loughborough University, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and Oxfam International.
The Tiger Toilet system was designed to enable the safe removal of vermi-compost and to prevent the handling of undigested waste by humans. To ensure safety, users must be instructed to not handle the undigested waste immediately after it is deposited into the pit.
The Tiger Toilet is mainly sold as both the toilet superstructure and the biodigester; however the vermifitration biodigester technology can be purchased independently and coupled with existing toilet technology and superstructures.
Furlong, C. et. al. The development of an onsite sanitation system based on vermifiltration: the ‘Tiger Toilet’. Journal of Water, Sanitation & Hygiene for Development.
Furlong, C. et. al. Processing of human faeces by wet vermifiltration for improved on-site sanitation. Journal of Water, Sanitation & Hygiene for Development.
Furlong, C. et. al. The Tiger Toilet: From Concept to Reality. IWA specialist conference on Municipal Water Management and Sanitation in Developing Countries.
The Tiger Toilet system was evaluated based on environmental impact on digester worms, system configuration’s impact on effluent quality, and functionality during scaling.
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