Namma Toilet is a modular toilet solution in India with the goal of eradicating open defecation. Available stalls include urinals, hand-washing modules, accessible toilets, toilets for children, and toilet partitions for men and women. These can be applied to urban or rural areas, connected to electricity or installed with solar panels, connected to water systems or have an overhead tank, and connected to a sewage system or installed with a septic tank.
Manufactured by Urbane Industries Limited in Chennai, with a modular design including urinals, hand-washing modules, accessible toilets, toilets for children, and toilet partitions for men and women, the ability to connect to an electric grid or have solar panels, the ability to connect to water or have an overhead tank, and the ability to connect to sewer or have a septic tank.
Intellectural Property Type
User Provision Model
Distributions to Date Status
At least 2,500 toilets have been installed
Flush or pour flush
Sewage or septic
Time until emptying
The materials used include ceramic pans, stainless steel taps, LED lighting, solar panels, polycarbonate roofs, and stainless steel louvers for air ventilation. Flush tanks are provided in every module and an overhead tank of sufficient capacity (2000 L). The composite material is 14.5 mm thick, and the toilets have been tested with 200 users/day. The module material is fire retardant, acid and alkali proof, water resistant, termite resistant and the paint scratch-resistant. Each module is 3.5 ft x 4 ft in size and 7.5 ft in height, with a 3 ft walkway available in front of the toilet modules and about 2.5 ft in the rear. Women's toilet also has a sanitary disposal unit. The accessible toilets have wider doors, ramp for proper access, grab bars and a raised toilet.
Provided by the manufacturer
Replacement components include module infrastructure, toilet components, and periodic septic emptying.
Manufacturer specifies a lifetime of 25 years
Manufacturer Specified Performance Parameters
Manufacturer-specified performance targets include a lack of smell, scratch-resistant paint, accessible, interior lighting, private, and durable.
Vetted Performance Status
National Institute of Design (NID) Ahmadabad conducted a cultural appropriateness study that influenced the Namma Toilet design, and pilot testing in Tambaram.
When using a public toilet, fecal-pathogen spread and disease transmission is a serious concern. The manufacturer recommends cleaning the toilets every 3 hours or so with normal cleaning liquids (without the use of any acids or bleaches). Periodic cleaning is required and depends on the usage pattern.
Complementary Technical Systems
An electricity source (or solar panel component), a water source (or overhead tank installation), a sewer system (or septic tank installation).