Sustainable Incremental Construction Unit (Modular Housing Scheme)
EiABC (Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction, and City Development) and Bauhaus University
The Sustainable Incremental Construction Unit (SICU) is a process-oriented building product that utilizes a purposefully incomplete structure that is both affordable and rapid to assemble. The homeowners complete the construction themselves according to their own needs.
The Sustainable Incremental Construction Unit, or the SICU, is a process-oriented building product that utilizes a purposefully incomplete structure that is both affordable and rapid to assemble. With up to 90% of the building components (including prefabricated concrete elements and lightweight eucalyptus frames) produced by local micro enterprises, the approach enables capacity building, as the homeowners complete the construction themselves according to their own needs.
SICU is part of the “welcome Africa” project 2012- 2015 at DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) which is an international academic research project between the Ethiopian, South Sudanese and German universities.
*Please note that building designs are being included as “products” in the Habitat Sector of the Solutions Library to allow readers to learn from how projects were designed and constructed and how they are serving the occupants, whether effective or ineffective.
Tested in Addis Ababa Ethiopia, with a focus on informal settlements
$6,100 USD, estimated, excluding the cost of toilet facilities. Interview with design team Estimated costs of individual elements can be found in the SICU Technical Report.
Families and individuals living within informal settlements.
Prefabricated components were built by local enterprises and brought to site. Outstanding materials such as eucalyptus wood and corrugated metal were purchased locally and brought to site. Students from Ethiopia, Germany and South Sudan participated in the assembly of the prototype.
Open source under the Creative Commons license
The project is a prototype. Drawings are available (see Schematics section) to anyone wanting to build a similar structure.
SICU is a 1:1 single building prototype. There is no documentation of any other SICU projects yet being built.
Indication of whether design can be replicated in multiple locations
Number of individuals. 1 family = 5 persons.
Number of days from start of construction to completion
Surface area of footprint
Number of occupiable floors (ground floor only = 1)
Primary materials used
Composite estimated R-value
As calculated by designer
As calculated by designer
Based upon primary structural system as per the International Building Code
Based upon Structural Occupancy Category and soil conditions of site; as per the International Building Code
List of suitable climates for use of this design
Prefabricated concrete elements and lightweight eucalyptus frames are prefabricated and produced by micro and small scale enterprises. The flooring of the upper storey of the house is constructed with prefabricated plywood boards. SICU is a semi-complete construction where the homeowners are able to finish the building themselves. Metal connectors were used to secure the eucalyptus frames to the wooden beams. Each prefabricated building element was coded and labeled to aid the efficient assembly of the building.
Technical support can be provided by any general contractor since the building components are standard.
Because the building is made out of materials that are available locally (in the city), replacement or new components can be purchased and easily added.
Manufacturer performance targets include showcasing a parallel strategy to the existing governmental housing project, researching and implementing innovative and cost efficient constructions, utilizing fast and simple prefabricated construction, and creating the opportunity for new jobs and skills.
The prototype and the research project was examined and accepted by academicians, researchers, and construction sector and government officials to use it as a housing solution.Interview with design team
The prototype was tested in a controlled environment with the involvement of different researchers, academicians, students, and government bodies. After it was tested in an academic environment, it was tested again in a real neighborhood consisting of social factors and contextual issues. Interview with design team
Workers are subject to the general dangers of working on a construction site including working from heights and with sharp tools. The design does not require the use of any large equipment.
There was research done in collaboration at EiABC (Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction and City development) named ‘’Research Project Scaling Down’’ with the purpose of showing alternative housing typologies, which are affordable, livable, flexible and sustainable with the appropriate construction details. The final result of the research will result in a detailed catalogue with specific building systems and optimized details, a guiding booklet on construction processes as well as manuals for necessary maintenance. It will also take into account regulations and guidelines. Interview with design team
Atamewan, E. and E., Olagunju, R. E., 2017, “Incremental Construction for Sustainable Low-Income Housing Delivery in Developing Countries: a Case Study of Bayelsa State Nigeria,” Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2(19), pp. 29-39. http://DOI 10.5755/j01.sace.19.2.17349.
Malaque III, I., Bartsch, K., and Scriver, P., 2015, “Learning from Informal Settlements: Provision and Incremental Construction of Housing for the Urban Poor in Davao City, Philipines,” Living and Learning: Research for a Better Built Environment: 49th International Conference of the Architectural Association, Crawford, R. H. and Stephan, A., eds., The University of Melbourne Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 163-172.
Greene, M., and Rojas, E., 2008, “Incremental Construction: a Strategy to Facilitate Access to Housing,”Environment & Urbanization, 20(1), pp. 89-108. http://DOI: 10.1177/0956247808089150.
No regulations have been cited for this product. There are likely few regulations in the informal settlements where the SICU is intended to be built.
The finished prototypes are being evaluated based on durability of the building components, flexibility of building use, adaptability for different contexts, speed of construction and housing provisions. Interview with design team
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